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We are a scientific network, comprising two clinical psychologists and nine philosophers, researching the role of amibivalence for suicidal agency.


One of the most important characteristic properties of suicidal agents is the mental state of ambivalence: Suicidal agents seem to act simultaneously on opposing mental states. Broadly speaking, suicidal agents have the intention to kill themselves, while they look for rescue and hope not to succeed. While ambivalence in suicides is a well-known phenomenon in clinical psychology, its structural features and its role for action is not well understood. There is no clear conceptualization of the phenomenon, neither in psychology nor in philosophy. The aim of the scientific network is to interdisciplinarily analyze and evaluate the role of ambivalence in suicidal agency. First, we want to understand ambivalence by analyzing its structural features and the types of mental states that are involved. Second, we will reflect on the role of ambivalence for the transition from thinking about taking one’s life (suicidal ideation) to the actual act. Third, we will evaluate whether ambivalence indicates a decreased sense of agency, autonomy or rationality, which could justify interventions on new grounds.


„I believe that people who are actually committing suicide are ambivalent about life and death at the very moment they are committing it. They wish to die and they simultaneously wish to be rescued. […] To feel that one has to do it, and, simultaneously, to yearn for intervention” (Shneidman 1998, p. 133).


Exploring Suicidal Ambivalence: An Interdisciplinary Anthology

Our project, now in its second year, has hosted four workshops featuring international experts such as Craig Bryan, Justin Coates, David Rudd, Peter Britton, Michael Brady, and Sarah Conly.

We are currently compiling an anthology on the topic of suicidal ambivalence. This volume will explore the nature of suicidal ambivalence, how it influences action, the value of ambivalence, and discuss ethical questions related to paternalism from an interdisciplinary perspective. Contributions will include essays from both network members and external authors like Craig Bryan and Justin Coates.

With this anthology, we aim to address a significant gap in the philosophical and psychological literature on this critical topic.

We Are

Ambivalence is associated with

Malfunctioning Agency

According to Frankfurt, ambivalence makes rational action impossible because the person as such cannot act; the agent’s will is self-defeating, as such an inner conflict precludes behavioral effectiveness - the agent acts simultaneously in contrary directions. Thereby, the agent’s will becomes fragmented and incoherent.

Practical Irrationality

Shneidman highlights, it is not uncommon that individuals who survive their suicide attempts expressed phantasies of rescue and intervention for the time when the suicidal action was unfolding. But, if one does not want to succeed but hopes to fail, why engage in intentional action in the first place?

Loss of Autonomy

Agents act autonomously if they act in self-governed ways. Frankfurt thinks that ambivalence undermines the agent’s autonomy. In case suicidal agents are ambivalent in a Frankfurt-sense, this would imply that ambivalence undermines their self-governance.

"I have never known anyone who was 100 percent for wanting to commit suicide without any fantasies of possible rescure. Individuals would be happy not to do it, if they didn't 'have to.' It is this omnipresent ambivalence that gives us the moral imperative for clinical intervention"

(Sheidman 1998, p. 133)


But does it? This depends how ambivalence is understood, and whether it actually indicates a lack of autonomy or pratical irrationality.

The network's milestones:

1. The Phenomenology of Ambivalence.  Develop a model of the phenomenology of suicidal agents.
2. Evaluating Types of Ambivalence.  Evaluate accounts for conceptualizing ambivalence.
3. Understanding the Role of Ambivalance for Suicidal Action.   Explain how ambivalence plays a role for suicidal actions.
4. Ethical Implications of Ambivalence.  Depending on what ambivalence in suicidal agents is and what role it plays for action, evaluate which implications ambivalence has for the suicidal  individual’s  agency,  autonomy,  and  rationality  as  well  as  for  the  right  to intervene.
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